Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Education in Athletic Training


Department of Athletic Training

Committee Member

Julie N. Bernier

Committee Member

Irene Cucina


Women in sports participation has increased dramatically over recent years (Anderson, Dome, Gautum, Awh, & Rennirt, 2001; Arendt & Dick, 1995; Huston & Wojtys, 1996). With this increase, there has been an increase in the interest in the amount of injury, particularly that of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (Arendt & Dick, 1995). The hamstrings function together with the ACL to provide anterior stability. When the hamstrings contract they decrease forward displacement of the tibia (Viola et al.,2000; Anderson et al., 2001; Moul, 1998). The purpose of the current study was to determine if there was a gender difference in internal and external tibial rotation strength at three knee flexion angles. A total of 30subjects (n = 15 male; n = 15 female) from a small New England college voluntarily participated in this study. The Biodex isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure peak torque at 30°/s. Peak torque was determined at knee flexion angles of 20°, 45°, and 90°. On day 1, subjects were set up at a predetermined angle of 45° and performed three repetitions for a practice session. On day 2, subjects returned for testing and performed three maximum repetitions at prescribed angles of 20°, 45°, and 90°. A 2 X 2 X 3 mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was computed comparing mean total peak torque across the level of degrees of knee flexion. Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference post hoc analysis was used for determination of interactions. A significant gender by angle by direction interaction (p = .020) was found. Internal tibial rotators of males were stronger than their external tibial rotators at 20° and 45°. Females internal tibial rotators were weaker than their external tibial rotators in all three cases. Further research is recommended to compare internal to external tibial rotation strength ratios with hamstring to quadriceps ratios and to determine if there is a biomechanical relationship between function, EMG, and internal to external tibial rotation strength ratio.